The ethological attachment theory

To claim that temperament is the overriding factor in the development of attachment would be a mistake. Ethological and relationship approaches.

Some of the earliest behavioral theories suggested that attachment was simply a learned behavior. By following babies throughout their first eight years of life, Kagan has found one personality trait, shyness, that appears to be linked to biological differences.

Radke-Yarrow, M. The infants were observed every four weeks during the first year of life, and then once again at 18 months. Internal working models revisited.

ethological perspective

Indeed, other external variables, such as family conflict, parental income, education, etc. Of these, 44 were juvenile thieves and had been referred to him because of their stealing.

Recently, Michael Lewis and other psychologists have challenged some of the claims attachment theorists have made about the long-term effects of the attachment process.

bowlby attachment theory

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Developmental Psychology, 28, Develomental Psychology, 32, The first question is, Can attachment theory be supported by empirical evidence? The second group of infants was characterized by a lack of distress during parental separation, and avoidance of the parent upon return.

The ethological attachment theory

When the adult leaves, the child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return. However, before we accept the Strange Situation as a tool to accurately measure attachment security, we need to examine its validity. John Bowlby took the concept ahead illustrating an application of ethological theory on human behavior and development. Child development, Harlow designed an experiment with infant rhesus monkeys, whom he took away from their mother shortly after birth, and raised with two different surrogate mothers instead. Although the Strange Situation has been criticized for not reflecting cultural variation in cross-cultural studies, it has provided researchers with an excellent tool to measure attachment security in infants. On the other side, if the attachment is both negative and insecure, the individual has high chances of not attaining optimal life-span development. Four specific and distinct patterns emerge that show that the assessment of mothers' attachment security consistently corresponds to the attachment classification of their children. When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers.
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Attachment Theory