Six sections of a scientific research paper

Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". If you're already familiar with the paper's topic, you can just skim the introduction and materials and methods sections to make sure you're truly up-to-date. List the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research: Description of the site Description of the surveys or experiments done, giving information on dates, etc.

scientific paper format

If you're reading a paragraph in the current paper and want more information on the content, you should always try to find and read the articles cited in that paragraph. If you're considering doing original scientific research, reading the scientific literature is a must!

Six sections of a scientific research paper

It is one of the most annoying problems, and causes great headaches among editors. Citations also provide jumping-off points to allow the reader to explore other tangents to the subject that are not directly addressed in the paper. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Remember that the Introduction is meant to introduce the reader to your research, not summarize and evaluate all past literature on the subject which is the purpose of a review paper. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here. A good introduction should be fairly heavy with citations. Long introductions put readers off. For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary 2. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate.

How did you collect data? Authors often use the discussion to describe what their work suggests and how it relates to other studies.

Parts of a scientific research paper

The first step is to examine each figure and table. Write succinctly 1. Write: The enzyme catalyzed Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here. A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered. Did you employ qualitative or quantitative research methods? These articles also contain details about how the experiments were done. Most journals have now the possibility to download small files with the format of the references, allowing you to change it automatically. Therefore, when you graduate from student papers to publishable manuscripts, you must learn to prepare figures that will not embarrass you. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. The description should be complete enough to enable someone else to repeat your work. That is because it should distill the essence of the paper even more than the abstract the next to last thing that you write. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Throughout the introduction, there will be citations for previously published articles or reviews that discuss the same topic.

Relationships between numbers are more readily grasped when they are presented graphically rather than as columns in a table. This section offers information on the range of other studies cited: Does the author cite only his or her previous studies? If even after trying all these sources you're still confused, it may be time to consider a new topic.

elements of a research paper

However, if you do that, you should list you name first so that we know that you wrote it. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Use appropriate methods of showing data.

parts of a scholarly journal article

Methodology Discuss your research methodology. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract.

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Composing the Sections of a Research Paper