Frederick jackson turner the significance of the frontier thesis
They emphasized the values of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, and the resolution of social, economic, and political issues.
In these writings Turner promoted new methods in historical research, including the techniques of the newly founded social sciences, and urged his colleagues to study new topics such as immigration, urbanization, economic development, and social and cultural history.
Turner began his teaching career at the University of Wisconsin in Mode inargued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the Mormonsthe Church of Christthe Disciples of Christand the Cumberland Presbyterians.
William Appleman Williams led the "Wisconsin School" of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century. Religious institutions from the eastern seaboard, in particular, battled for possession of the West.
In the pavilions and halls of the Exposition, the electric light bulb, the moveable sidewalk, the Ferris wheel, diet carbonated soda, and Cream of Wheat were a few of the many exciting things unveiled. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization.
Turner taught at the University of Wisconsin untilwhen he accepted an appointment to a distinguished chair of history at Harvard University.
Frederick jackson turner frontier thesis pdf
For many women, Asians, Mexicans who suddenly found themselves residents of the United States, and, of course, Indians, the West was no promised land. In Australia, "mateship" and working together was valued more than individualism. Many such critics have sought to replace the idea of a moving frontier with the idea of the West as a distinctive region, much like the American South. It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier. Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important. Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and more intolerant of hierarchy. In , Turner spoke at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition, where millions of Americans had flocked to Chicago for this multi-month event to experience displays of new technologies, new products, and new tastes. In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. They were written between September and July They argue that, "Frontier imagery motivates Fermilab physicists, and a rhetoric remarkably similar to that of Turner helped them secure support for their research. Turner's contribution to American history was to argue that the frontier past best explained the distinctive history of the United States. Turner may have had difficulty writing books, but he was a brilliant master of the historical essay. If we can reach and cross this frontier, our generations will have furnished a significant milestone in human history. Historians are still working under its shadow, even though many have been fighting for decades to dissolve its potency.
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