A short description of bacteria
There are three basic bacterial shapes: Round bacteria called cocci singular: coccuscylindrical, capsule-shaped ones known as bacilli singular: bacillus ; and spiral bacteria, aptly called spirilla singular: spirillum.
InJoshua Lederburg coined the term "gut microbiome," and scientists worldwide are currently seeking to describe and understand more precisely the structures, types, and uses of "gut flora," or bacteria in the human body. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae S.
Clostridium is an example of an endospore-forming bacterium. It also helps to anchor appendages like the pili and flagella, which originate in the cytoplasm membrane and protrude through the wall to the outside. Even older than the bacteria are the archeans also called archaebacteria tiny prokaryotic organisms that live only in extreme environments: boiling water, super-salty pools, sulfur-spewing volcanic vents, acidic water, and deep in the Antarctic ice.
Transformation is the most common process of horizontal gene transfer and occurs when short DNA fragments are exchanged between donors and recipients.
A few bacterial types are even smaller, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae , which is one of the smallest bacteria, ranging from about 0. Mind you, their cell wall is not like the one in a plant. Bacteria are used in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetic research, because they can grow quickly and are relatively easy to manipulate. Capsule - Some species of bacteria have a third protective covering, a capsule made up of polysaccharides complex carbohydrates. Some bacterial species, such as cyanobacteria and firmicutes, reproduce via budding. Smaller circular auxiliary DNA strands, called plasmids, are also found in the cytoplasm. Most absorb dead organic material, such as decomposing flesh. Cell wall composition varies widely amongst bacteria and is one of the most important factors in bacterial species analysis and differentiation. There are three basic bacterial shapes: Round bacteria called cocci singular: coccus , cylindrical, capsule-shaped ones known as bacilli singular: bacillus ; and spiral bacteria, aptly called spirilla singular: spirillum. More investigation is needed to confirm the health benefits of fermented foods. The earth is estimated to hold at least 5 nonillion bacteria, and much of the earth's biomass is thought to be made up of bacteria. They don't get many nutrients out of the plants and can't break down the cellulose. However, in recent years, improper and unnecessary use of antibiotics has promoted the spread of several strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These processes can make bacteria stronger and more able to resist threats, such as antibiotic medication.
The earth is estimated to hold at least 5 nonillion bacteria, and much of the earth's biomass is thought to be made up of bacteria. Extremophiles[ change change source ] Some bacteria are extremophiles.
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